王牌探长 2021-02-20 11:50:30

乔布斯演讲稿 英文版:

I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just three stories.

The first story is about connecting the dots.

I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?

It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl.

So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.

And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out.

And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:

Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this.

I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and I found it fascinating.

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.

And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.

Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something - your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.

My second story is about love and loss.

I was lucky – I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation - the Macintosh - a year earlier, and I had just turned 30.  

And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.

I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down - that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly.

I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me – I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.

I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world.

In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I retuned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.

I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You've got to find what you love.

And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.

My third story is about death. 

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything – all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now.

This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:

No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.

乔布斯演讲稿 Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma - which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of other's opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notion.

Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.

Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.

Thank you all very much.




我在 Reed 大学读了六个月之后就退学了,但是在十八个月以后——我真正地作出退学决定之前,我还经常去学校。那么,我为什么要退学呢?



在十七岁那年,我真的上了大学。但是我很愚蠢的选择了一个几乎和你们斯坦福大学一样贵的学校, 而我父母只是蓝领阶层,我的学费几乎要花光了他们所有积蓄。而六个月后, 我却看不到其中的价值所在。我不知道我想要在生命中做什么,我也不知道大学能怎么样帮助我找到答案。


但是事实并不是那么浪漫。我没有了宿舍住,所以我只能睡在朋友房间的地板上,我去捡可乐瓶子,以五分一个的价格卖掉,这样我就可以有点钱买吃的,,在每个星期天的晚上,我会走七英里的路程,到城市另一端的 Hare Krishna 寺庙(注:位于纽约 Brooklyn 下城),可以吃上每星期唯一一顿饱饭。我爱圣餐。我跟着我的直觉和好奇心走,,遇到了很多东西,此后被证明是无价之宝。我来举个例子吧:

在那时,Reed 大学提供全美最好的美术字课程。在这个大学里,每张海报,,每个抽屉的每个标签,全都是漂亮的手写美术字。因为我退学了,不用去上那些常规的课程,所以我决定去参加这个课程,去学学怎样写出漂亮的美术字。

我学到了san serif 和 serif 字体,,我学会了怎么样在不同的字母组合之中改变空格的长度,,还有怎么样才能作出最棒的印刷式样。那是一种科学永远不能捕捉到的、美丽的、历史性的艺术精妙,,我发现那实在是太美妙了。

当时这些东西好像都没有什么会在我生命中实际应用的可能。但是十年之后,当我们在设计第一台 Macintosh 电脑的时候,它就回归到我身边。我把当时我学的那些家伙全都设计进了 Mac。那是第一台使用了漂亮的印刷字体的电脑。如果我在大学里从没有学那门课,麦金塔电脑就不会有多种字体或者适当分隔的字体。

因为微软都是抄 Mac 电脑的,很可能在个人电脑上都不会有这些了。如果我没有退学,那我就不会旁听这门书法课,然后个人电脑就不会像现在这样有神奇的排印术了。当然在大学的时候,我还不可能把未来的点点滴滴串连起来,但是当我十年后回顾这一切的时候,真的豁然开朗了。

再次说明下,你不可能将未来的片断串连起来,你只能在回顾的时候将点点滴滴串连起来。所以你必须相信这些片断会以某种方式在未来的某一天串连起来。你必须要相信某些东西:你的勇气、命运、生命、因缘,随便是什么。这种方法从来没有令我失望(let me down),只是让我的生命更加地与众不同。


我非常幸运,因为我在很早的时候就找到了我爱做的事情。在我二十岁的时候,我和 Woz 就在我父母的车库里面创立了苹果公司。我们工作地很努力, 十年之后, 苹果就从我们两个人窝在车库里发展到了拥超过四千名的雇员、价值超过十亿美金的大公司。而在那之前一年,我们发布了我们最精美的产品,那就是Macintosh,而我也刚过了三十岁了。

然后,我被炒了鱿鱼。你怎么可能被你自己创立的公司炒鱿鱼呢? 是这样地,在苹果快速成长的时候,我们雇用了一个我认为很有天分的家伙和我一起管理这个公司,在第一年,公司运转得很好。但是后来我们对未来的愿景发生了分歧,,最终我们大吵一通。当我们争吵不可开交时,,董事会站在了他那边。所以在三十岁的时候,,我出局了。是一种非常公开地出局。我作为一个成人,生命中的焦点在我眼前消失了,这对我真的是毁灭性的。

在最初的几个月里,我真是不知道该做些什么。我感到我把从前的创业激情给丢了,我把传到我手里的接力棒整到了地上。我和 David Pack 和 Bob Boyce 见面,并试图就如此悲惨地搞砸了向他们道歉。



在接下来的五年里,我创立了一个名叫 NeXT 的公司,还有一个叫 Pixar 的公司,并和一位优雅的女士相爱,她后来成为我的妻子。Pixar 制作了世界上第一个用电脑制作的动画电影——“玩具总动员”,Pixar 现在也是世界上最成功的电脑制作工作室。

在后来的一系列运转中,Apple 收购了 NeXT,然后我回到了 Apple 公司。我们在 NeXT 发展的技术在 Apple 现在的复兴之中发挥了关键的作用。我和 Laurence 一起建立了一个幸福的家庭。

我可以非常肯定,如果我不被 Apple 开除,这其中任何一件事情都不会发生。这件事本身是一味非常苦的药,但是我猜病人需要它。有些时候,生活会拿起一块砖头猛拍向你的脑袋。不要失去信心。我很清楚唯一使我一直走下去的,就是我无比钟爱我做的事情。你得去找到你所爱的东西。







那是我最接近死亡的时候,我希望这也是以后的几十年最接近的一次。死亡对我来说,曾经只是一个有用但是纯粹是知识上的概念,经历过这次的生死考验,我现在可以更肯定一点地对你们说,没有人愿意死,即使人们想上天堂,人们也不会为了去那里而死。但是死亡是我们每个人共同的终点。从来没有人能够逃脱它。也应该如此。 因为死亡就是生命中最最好的发明。它是生命变更的媒介。它将旧的清除以便给新的让路。你们现在是新的, 但是从现在开始不久以后,你们将会逐渐的变成旧的然后被清除。我很抱歉这很戏剧性,但是这十分的真实。


当我还年轻的时候,有一个非常令人震惊的出版物,就是“完整地球目录”,是我们那一代人的宝典之一。这是由 Stewart Brand 创建的,他就待在离这里不远的 Menlo 公园中。他用他诗人般的触感给这个期刊带来了生命。那是在60年代后期,还没有个人电脑和桌面印刷系统,所以完全时靠打字机、剪刀和拍立得相机做出来的。有点像是 Google 诞生 35 年前的 Google 的平装版,它充满了理想主义,洋溢着灵巧的工具和伟大的见解。

Stewart 和他团队做出了几期的《完整地球目录》,然后这本杂志就终结了,他们推出了最后一期。那是再 20 世纪 70 年代中期,我当时像你们这么大。在他们最后一期的封底,是一张早晨乡间公路的照片,就是那种有点冒险精神的人在搭便车的时候会看到的那样。在图下面是这句话:“求知若渴,虚怀若谷”。这是他们停止广播时的告别语。求知若渴,虚怀若谷。我也总是希望自己也能做到这些。现在,你们要毕业了,开始新的生活,我也对你们衷心期待。




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乔布斯演讲稿 王牌探长一个致力于探索美好事物的南子。

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